“龙”的英文应该翻译成 loong

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我向牛津英语辞典提交了单词 Loong

  英语已经不仅仅是英国人的语言,它作为世界通用语言,在全世界各地都发展出了当地特有的表述方式,因此,英语已经成为“世界英语”(World English)。牛津英语辞典(OED,Oxford English Dictionary)积极收入世界各地的新英语单词,例如日前被收入的香港英语 add oil(加油)。

  我本来奢望国内翻译学界和外宣官方改译龙之后,新译法逐步从中国走向世界。但是,官学两界迟迟没有动静,相反不断有专家学者和有关部门官员屡屡表态坚决不改译,坚持把中国的象征龙译为 dragon,和欧美文化中最大的恶魔杜拉更兽(dragon)同名。去年习近平对特朗普说“我们叫龙的传人”,随行译员译龙为 dragon,而特朗普自己被国内的反对者比喻为 dragon,被支持者比喻为杀死 dragon 的英雄。(← 点击看详情)

  我转发了牛津词典收入 add oil 的消息之后,上海交通大学的一位老学长建议我直接向牛津提交 loong 这个单词。看来 Loong 也只能走“出口转内销”的道路了。

  我研究了一番 OED,发现他们正在号召世界各地的人(Whether you're in Manchester, Mumbai, Manila, or Massachusetts, 不论你是在曼彻斯特、孟买、马尼拉,还是在马萨诸塞州,这几个地方的地名都是 M 开头,OED 的小编真调皮),把当地的英文表达方法告诉 OED。

  于是我提交了 Loong(英语烂,不要吐槽):

Which words are used where you are?

Word or phrase *
e.g. cheeselog, away for slates.

Loong

What does it mean? *
e.g. a woodlouse, on the road to success.

Loong is the mythological creature in Chinese culture, it is called dragon mistakenly now.

Loong is not a devil. Most Chinses people think it is the symbol of luck and power, and China and its culture. They call themselves as the descendants of Loong.

Loong is a transliteration according to its Chinese pronounciation.

Where have you encountered it? *
e.g. Leeds, UK, Mumbai, south-west Australia

China, Oversea Chinese's names, such as Lee Siu Loong (Bruce Lee), Lee Hsien Loong (the Prime Minister of Singapore)

Is there anything else you'd like to tell us about this word and how it is used?

I studied the word more than ten years. The earlist record of loong I found can be traced back to the year of 1814, the book Elements of Chinese Grammar, written by English missionary Joshua Marshman.

The useages of loong have not stopped from that time. More information can be found in my website www.loong.cn.

Recend useages of loong by Chinadaily are listed below:

Expert: Drone to soar on market
By ZHAO LEI | China Daily | Updated: 2017-04-05 06:28
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2017-04/05/content_28793243.htm

The best-known Chinese military drones are the Wing Loong family, made by Aviation Industry Corp of China, and China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp's CH series.

CH drones have been sold to military users in more than 10 countries, while the Wing Loong II, which made its maiden flight in late February, has received the largest contract ever for a Chinese drone made for export.

----------

Heroes Coming
By Xu Fan | China Daily | Updated: 2017-09-14 07:15
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/kindle/2017-09/14/content_31990800.htm

Jiang Yong, a Beijing-based industry watcher, gives the instances of two new movies of this year - martial arts star Zhao Wenzhuo's God of War, and veteran actor Liu Peiqi's The War of Loong.

God of War chronicles 16th-century general Qi Jiguang's battles against Japanese pirates, while The War of Loong recounts the Chinese general Feng Zicai's fight against French forces during the Sino-French War in 1885.

-----------

Shimao Group enhances tradition, culture in high-level villa product line
By Song Mengxing | China Daily | Updated: 2018-07-23 07:49
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2018-07/23/content_36624021.htm

Shimao Group, which specializes in real estate development, has added a top-level villa product line - the Shimao Loong Series - to its total portfolio of five residential product lines. Loong is a symbol of the Chinese nation, with the company building the Shimao Xishan Loong Palace in Beijing.

by Dr.Huang Ji, email:jhuang@comm.ecnu.edu.cn

https://public.oed.com/appeals/words-where-you-are/

  2018年10月20日第一次提交,修改了一些错误之后在 22 日再次提交。

  因为 OED 似乎很看重 Chinadaily 上的实际运用,于是我找了几个《中国日报》上的最新使用实例,巧的是它也的确报道了 Wing Loong(侦查打击一体无人飞机“翼龙”)和 The War of Loong(电影“龙之战”)这两个最典型的、而且有官方色彩的应用。

  第三个例子是今年的,很新,而且里面明确写了 Loong is a symbol of the Chinese nation(龙是中国的一个象征),也很给力。

  Loong 的历史比 add oil 长多了,至少始于 1814 年,而且还是英国传教士率先这样写的,可谓是原汁原味的英语单词(外来语)。应该比 add oil 更有希望被 OED 收入。相信一旦 OED 收入了 Loong,国内的专家学者和官员们会立即转变态度。

(黄佶,2018年10月22日)

(26日补充提交的内容见图下)

  26日又把我过去在 Google Books 里找到的大量实际使用 Loong 的例子提交了:

In Google books, with the key word loong, many more applications can be found, such as:

In the year of 1817:

Boats, on reaching this place, usually offer up some sacrifice at the Loong-wang-Miao, or temple of the Dragon King: this was the first temple I had seen…
(Journal of the proceedings of the late Embassy to China, p257)

1836:

He-loong is the Saghalien, or Black Dragon,...
(The Chinese: a general description of the empire of China and its inhabitants, p375)

1842:

Loong-tsing, literally tea of the wells of the dragon
(The Penny Cyclop?dia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, vol.24, p287)

1846:

The word Loong is applied as an epithet to most things pertaining to the emperor. Loong-wei, "the dragon-seat", is the imperial throne.
(The Chinese: a general description of the empire of China and its inhabitants, p154)

1857: Loong-yen, or "dragon's eye,"(The Chinese)

1863: Of the dragon, or loong, there are three, ...(Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country)

1872: No other city in the Empire had the power of making the "Loong-ban," "Dragon robes," or the robes worn by the Emperor.
(The Spirit of Missions)

1876: this was the "Kin-loong," or Golden Dragon,
(The mandarin's daughter)

1878: the deity called Loong-moo, or the Dragon's Mother.
(China: A History of the Laws, Manners, and Customs of the People)

1879: The Emperor sent an officer who spent over ten years in a minute geomantic examination of the mountain and its surroundings, with special reference to the Loong Mih or Dragon Pulse
(The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal)

1882: The loong or dragon, as it is commonly translated, is to the Chinese nation all that the eagle is to us, and a great deal more. It is a mysterious, fabulous creature in many respects like the dragon of western fables, but far surpassing it. Not only supernatural, but almost divine qualities are attributed to it. ...
(J.E. Walker: Pagoda, Loong and Foong-Shooy)

1886: In the midst of these San-ui Hills is said to be the Loong-tam, or "Dragon Pool"
(Ling-Nam: Or, Interior Views of Southern China)

1892: Oolong, from Chinese woo-loong, "black dragon"
(Alden's Manifold Cyclopedia of Knowledge and Language)

1906: Mih-ho-loong means the Fire destroying dragon.
(Model Settlement)

1919: Loongfei (flying dragon) bridge
(Official Guide for Shippers & Travellers to the Principal Ports of the World)

1929: "Siaw Bah Loong" (Little White Dragon)
(What Do You Know about China?: A Source Book of Materials)

1937: It was "Hai Loong," the sea dragon.
(The American Magazine)

1941: It is the town of Lung Chuan I (pronounced Loong Chivan Ee and meaning Little Village at the Dragon Spring
(Life, November 24)

1955: a greatly ferocious loong, or, as foreigners would say, a dragon.
(Favorite stories old and new)

1961: Unlike the evil dragon of the West, the Chinese Dragon is a beneficent and gracious creature and is worshipped as the divine ruler of Lakes, Rivers and Seas. It is the powerful yet gentle "Loong" that brings rains to the earth, hastens the crops and cools the toiling farmers.
(San Francisco Chinatown on Parade in Picture and Story)

1971: The loong (Oriental dragon) symbolizes the spirit of change, moral excellence, and timely help to those in need.
(East West: The Chinese-American News Magazine)

1987: The choice of the correct site is governed by five factors: Loong, the Dragon, is the form of hills or undulations of the ground at the site in question;
(Mysterious places)

1989: As we have seen, the name Kowloon means "Nine Dragons." It comes from the Cantonese gau loong -- gau is nine and loong is dragon.
(The Book of Chinese Beliefs)

1996: it is considered lucky to name a baby boy after an animal associated with strength, courage and luck, such as Loong (dragon) or Foo (tiger).
(Culture, Religion, and Childbearing in a Multiracial Society, p266)

2001: Dragon Village, Long Cun ('loong tswoon'), sounds in Chinese, particularly to Sichuanese ears, just like nong cun, the generic term for rural
village.
(The Monkey and the Dragon)

2004:

The Dragon was the rain spirit of the ancient Chinese. Unlike the Western monster, the Chinese 'loong' was not an evil creature malevolent to mankind, but the rain giver who gathered the clouds, brought the welcome moisture and presided over water.
(From Dragon to Dragon)

To the Chinese, probably borne out of superstition and belief, the name "Loong" which means dragon in Chinese, bears auspicious connotations and can bring the bearer of such a name to greater heights in his future.
(Australian Language and Literacy Matters)

2007: hot pots such as Wei's Hot Pot, Kuaile Laojia (Happy Home), Yulong (Jade Loong) Hot Pot,...
(Food in China)

2008: The Chinese for dragon is "loong". You've got to know that.
(The Promised Land)

2011: He pointed to a small dragon.' This is Xiao Le Loong, the Little Happy Dragon.'
(Sex, Gossip and Rock & Roll)

2012: This was dragon country, the centuries - old estate of the Loong ("dragon") family.
(Root and Branch)

2013:

The Chinese dragon is called a "loong" and only has one head and no wings. Although it looks like a snake to some, it is actually comprised of nine different animals.
(Reflections of a Christian Kungfu Master)

His 'loong' (dragon) nose belonged to the fortunate and successful.
(Golden Dreams of Borneo)

2015: "He will be called Siew Loong, little dragon," her father had explained,...
(A Flash of Water)

2017: "This is Loong; it means 'dragon'," Mrs Bai says.
(The Soul of the White Dragon)

  我在 Chinadaily 里搜索到了最早的两个应用(不包括李显龙等的姓名),也提交了:

The earlist two usages of loong by Chinadaily (not including people's names):

The Torch Relay Graphic of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
(torchrelay.beijing2008.cn) Updated: 2007-04-27 10:48
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/2008/2007-04/27/content_861864.htm

Down the ages, "Loong" (Chinese dragon) and "Phoenix" are the traditional totems embedded with people's blessing and hope.

--------

Not everyone likes flapping fish head
By Raymond Zhou (China Daily) Updated: 2008-01-02 09:50
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/olympics/2008-01/02/content_6364366.htm

We shouldn't equate "dragon" with "long", and by the same token, we should probably call ours "loong" since "long" already exists as a word, he suggested.

  对 Chinadaily 最近两年的应用也做了补充:

Useages of loong by Chinadaily in recent two years are listed below:

Expert: Drone to soar on market
By ZHAO LEI | China Daily | Updated: 2017-04-05 06:28
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2017-04/05/content_28793243.htm

The best-known Chinese military drones are the Wing Loong family, made by Aviation Industry Corp of China, and China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp's CH series.

CH drones have been sold to military users in more than 10 countries, while the Wing Loong II, which made its maiden flight in late February, has received the largest contract ever for a Chinese drone made for export.

----------

Heroes Coming
By Xu Fan | China Daily | Updated: 2017-09-14 07:15
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/kindle/2017-09/14/content_31990800.htm

Jiang Yong, a Beijing-based industry watcher, gives the instances of two new movies of this year - martial arts star Zhao Wenzhuo's God of War, and veteran actor Liu Peiqi's The War of Loong.

God of War chronicles 16th-century general Qi Jiguang's battles against Japanese pirates, while The War of Loong recounts the Chinese general Feng Zicai's fight against French forces during the Sino-French War in 1885.

-----------

Shimao Group enhances tradition, culture in high-level villa product line
By Song Mengxing | China Daily | Updated: 2018-07-23 07:49
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2018-07/23/content_36624021.htm

Shimao Group, which specializes in real estate development, has added a top-level villa product line - the Shimao Loong Series - to its total portfolio of five residential product lines. Loong is a symbol of the Chinese nation, with the company building the Shimao Xishan Loong Palace in Beijing.

------------------

Changchun Longjia International Airport T2 to open
Updated: 2018-10-24 (ejilin.gov.cn)
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/m/2016jilin/2018-10/24/content_37130891.htm

The domestic flights of 22 airlines including Air China, Shenzhen Airlines, Shandong Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Qingdao Airlines, Hainan Airlines, Beijing Capital Airlines, Tianjin Airlines, Suparna Airlines, Lucky Air, Air Changan, Juneyao Air, Donghai Airlines, Chengdu Airlines, Kunming Airlines, Loong Air, Tibet Airlines, Air Travel, Joy Air, Spring Airlines and 9 Air, will be moving to T2.

(黄佶,2018年10月26日)

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